Marketing decisions generally fall into the following four controllable categories:
- Place (distribution)
The term “marketing mix” became popularized after Neil H. Borden published his 1964 article, The Concept of the Marketing Mix. Borden began using the term in his teaching in the late 1940’s after James Culliton had described the marketing manager as a “mixer of ingredients”. The ingredients in Borden’s marketing mix included product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and analysis. E. Jerome McCarthy later grouped these ingredients into the four categories that today are known as the 4 P’s of marketing
The article list a number of items in each category that provide a good starting point for thinking about marketin in general. The list is product oriented, but even service businesses should consider distribution and quality as specific concerns to be addressed in planning marketing strategy.